Troweled or sprayed fully-structural linings are essentially coatings that have sufficient structural capacity to replace the structural function of a deteriorated pipe. This type of lining may or may not include reinforcing layer(s) to add strength and stiffness to the liner. While the linings may adhere to the host pipe or structure, the structural design typically neglects this adhesion. The lining thickness may be substantial (for unreinforced materials of moderate stiffness) or small (e.g. for carbon-fiber-reinforced lining materials that have high strength and high modulus).